Bad sectors on hard drives

The hard disk drive is a computer’s primary data storage device. The drive’s magnetic disk stores the operating system as well as software programs and files needed while the computer is being used. Wedge-shaped sectors, or clusters, are small sections on the unit that stores data. Sectors can go bad over time through use, abuse or minor surface defects. When this happens, data cannot be written to or retrieved from these sectors. This can result in various issues including software errors, reduced drive storage capacity and at times the computer may be completely unable to boot. Causes
Software errors, surface defects and malfunction of a hard disk’s read/write head can create bad sectors on the disk. Sectors can also go bad with age or when heat or a strong impact (such as dropping the computer) damages the hard drive’s magnetic platter. A bad sector caused by physical damage cannot be fixed, but software-related defects often can be repaired with built-in utilities or using third-party software.
Test and Repair < ​​br of your operating system >
on Windows operating system, you can run the command “chkdsk ” at the DOS prompt to identify bad sectors. Alternatively, you can run ScanDisk (which is available on some versions of Windows) by right-clicking the drive with the bad sectors and selecting “Properties”, “Tools”, “Error Checking” and “Scan Now”. Another option is to reformat the hard drive, which will fix the software related errors and also permanently mark damaged sectors so bad that they will no longer be used by the operating system. If bad sectors are found more often, it’s probably time to replace your hard drive with a new one.
Recovery and backup
If any of your data becomes unreadable as it resides in a bad sector, you can often recover the data with third party data recovery software. Restoring from a backup is the best option when data cannot be recovered from a corrupted sector. Make sure your backups are current when bad sectors start to become an issue. If you decide to reformat your hard drive, always backup your important files first, as reformatting will erase all data on the drive.

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